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Aroostook War (1839)
Treaty of Ghent (1814)
Treaty of Paris (1783)
•The Aroostook War was an undeclared, bloodless war.
•In 1838, both the British and the Americans began surveying roads through the Maine lands. Additionally, lumberjacks from both countries traversed the Maine backcountry at will, angering both sides.
•Fights between the lumberjacks flared up, and Maine and New Brunswick called out their militiamen. Maine dispatched 10,000 men.
•President Van Buren sent General Winfield Scott to the "war" zone, and Scott arranged an agreement (March 1839) with John Harvey that averted actual fighting and arranged a truce and a joint occupancy of the territory in dispute until a satisfactory settlement could be reached.
•It is also known as the Pork and Beans War and The Lumberjack War.
•Hiram T. Smith is claimed to be the ‘only casualty of the Aroostook War’. Although, no one seems to know exactly what he died from.
Excerpt of the Aroostook War Fighting Song
We are marching on to Madawaska,
To fight the trespassers;
We’ll teach the British how to walk
And come off conquerors.
We’ll have our land, right good and clear,
For all the English say;
They shall not cut another log,
Nor stay another day.
•While the Treaty of Ghent ended the War of 1812 in December 1814, it did not resolve all the problems of the conflict. Indeed, issues like territorial boundaries, some of which had been unsettled even before the war, still needed amending.
•The 1783 Treaty of Paris had not adequately stated the boundary between British Canadian province of New Brunswick and Maine. Since the rivers and mountains described in the 1783 treaty were unclear, the British and American governments each had their own ideas of the border boundaries.
•The boundary dispute worsened after Maine gained statehood (1820) and began granting land to settlers in the valley of the Aroostook River.
•The Webster-Ashburton Treaty, signed August 1842, was negotiated by US Secretary of State Daniel Webster and Alexander Baring, First Lord Ashburton, for Britain to settle the disputed borders between New Brunswick and Maine and in the Great Lakes area. It also provided for Anglo–U.S. cooperation in the suppression of the slave trade and established clear guidelines for the extradition of fugitives in each other's nation.
•US would get over 7.000 sq. mi of the disputed area, up to the St Johns River, which would be opened up for free navigation by both countries. Great Britain got almost 5.000 sq. mi of disputed territory, allowing them an overland route between Lower Canada and Nova Scotia that was usable year-round – the Halifax Road. The small print in the treaty also granted the US 6,500 sq. mi in Minnesota that later was discovered to be an abundant resource of Mesabi iron ore.
Webster- Ashburton Treaty (1842)