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"Iodine-131 (8 d)*: Widely used in treating thyroid cancer and in imaging the thyroid; also in diagnosis of abnormal liver function, renal (kidney) blood flow and urinary tract obstruction. A strong gamma emitter, but used for beta therapy.
Bismuth-213 (46 min): Used for targeted alpha therapy (TAT), especially cancers.
Chromium-51 (28 d): Used to label red blood cells and quantify gastro-intestinal protein loss.
Cobalt-60 (5.27 yr): Formerly used for external beam radiotherapy, now used more for sterilizing
Dysprosium-165 (2 h): Used as a treatment of arthritis.
Erbium-169 (9.4 d): Use for relieving arthritis pain in synovial joints.
Holmium-166 (26 h): Being developed for diagnosis and treatment of liver tumours.
Iodine-125 (60 d): Used in cancer brachytherapy (prostate and brain), to evaluate the filtration rate of kidneys and to diagnose deep vein thrombosis in the leg. It is also commonly used in to show the presence of hormones in tiny quantities.
Iridium-192 (74 d): Supplied in wire form for use as an internal radiotherapy source for cancer treatment (used then removed).
Iron-59 (46 d): Used in studies of iron metabolism in the spleen.
Lead-212 (10.6 h): Used in TAT for cancers, with decay products
Palladium-103 (17 d): Used to make brachytherapy permanent implant seeds for early stage prostate cancer.
Phosphorus-32 (14 d): Used in the treatment of polycythemia vera (excess red blood cells). Beta emitter.
Potassium-42 (12 h): Used for the determination of exchangeable potassium in coronary blood flow.
Rhenium-186 (3.8 d): Used for pain relief in bone cancer. Beta emitter with weak gamma for imaging.
Samarium-153 (47 h): Sm-153 is very effective in relieving the pain of secondary cancers lodged in the bone. Also very effective for prostate and breast cancer. Beta emitter.
Selenium-75 (120 d): Used in the form of seleno-methionine to study the production of digestive enzymes.
Sodium-24 (15 h): For studies of electrolytes within the body.
Strontium-89 (50 d)*: Very effective in reducing the pain of prostate and bone cancer. Beta emitter.
Technetium-99m (6 h): Used in to image the skeleton and heart muscle in particular, but also for brain, thyroid, lungs (perfusion and ventilation), liver, spleen, kidney (structure and filtration rate), gall bladder, bone marrow, salivary and lacrimal glands, heart blood pool, infection and numerous specialised medical studies.
Xenon-133 (5 d)*: Used for pulmonary (lung) ventilation studies.
Yttrium-90 (64 h)*: Used for cancer brachytherapy and as silicate colloid for the relieving the pain of arthritis in larger synovial joints. Pure beta emitter and of growing significance in therapy." (3)
What are Radioisotopes?
It is very important that prior learning about nuclear chemistry you have and understanding of what a radioisotope is.
•When neutrons and protons, don't already exist in nature, and are produced artificially, the atom will be unstable. This is called a radioactive isotope or radioisotope.
•There are up to 200 radioisotopes most of which produced by artificial methods.
•The nucleus of a radioisotope usually becomes stable by emitting an alpha and/or beta particle (or positron). These particles may be accompanied by the emission of energy in the form of electromagnetic radiation known as gamma rays. This process is known as radioactive decay. (3)
• Radioactive products, which are used in medicine, are referred to as radiopharmaceuticals.
-refers to the likely hood of something happening. (increased exposure makes these health effects more likely to occur.
Examples of Effects:
-change in DNA (these are called mutations)
-"Non-stochastic effects appear in cases of exposure to high levels of radiation, and become more severe as the exposure increases. Short-term, high-level exposure is referred to as 'acute' exposure." (2)
Examples of Effects:
-radiation sickenss/radiation poisoning (includes: nausea, weakness, hair loss, skin burns or diminished organ function, or even death.)
*Note that medical patients receiving radiation treatments often experience acute effects, because they are receiving relatively high "bursts" of radiation during treatment.
What kinds of health effects does exposure to radiation cause?
Generally speaking, the amount of time and the quantity of radiation that one is exposed to determines the severity of the health effect. The health effects are divided into two main categories: stochastic and non-stochastic.
In order to thoroughly understand the rest of this glogster, it is necessary to understand the true definition of “nuclear chemistry.” Below you will find a video that explains the true meaning of this term. Beware the beginning may seem very silly. However, this movie was provided for educational purposes and for your own entertainment.
Nuclear Applications in Medicine
How does the procedure work?
Nuclear medicine procedures use a radioactive material called a radiopharmaceutical or radiotracer, which is then injected into the patients’ bloodstream. The radioactive material can be swallowed or also inhaled while it is in a gaseous state. The radioactive material collects in the area of your body being examined, and gives off a small amount of energy in the form of gamma rays. A gamma camera, PET scanner, or probe detects the energy and with the help of a computer creates pictures, which show details on both the structure and function of the organs and tissues within your body.
Unlike other imaging techniques, nuclear medicine images show physiologic processes within the body, such as metabolism rates or other chemical activity occurring, instead of showing anatomy and structure. “Areas of greater intensity, called "hot spots", indicate where large amounts of the radiotracer have accumulated and where there is a high level of chemical activity. Less intense areas, or "cold spots", indicate a smaller concentration of radiotracer and less chemical activity.” (1) A specific example of nuclear chemistry is: In radioactive iodine (I-131) therapy, radioactive iodine (I-131) is swallowed and then quickly absorbed into the bloodstream in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract (stomach) area/intestines) where it destroys cells within that organ.
Pictures Cited (video above) :
How is the procedure performed?
If for any reason you are having a nuclear medicine procedure preformed on yourself, or if you are curious as to how the procedure would be conducted, it would be done as follows: You will be positioned on an examination table. If necessary, a nurse or technologist will insert an intravenous (IV) (needle that transfers medicine) into a vein in your hand or arm. Depending on the type of nuclear medicine exam you are experiencing, the dose of radiotracer is then injected through the intravenous IV, swallowed or inhaled as a gas. It can take anywhere from several seconds to several days for the radiotracer to travel through your body and collect in the organ or area being examined. Because of this time frame, imaging must be done immediately after. When imaging begins, the gamma camera will take a variety of images from different angles. The camera may rotate around you, stay in one position or come extremely close to you. You will be asked to change positions in-between images and be told to stay still during others in order to obtain the best results. If a probe is being used, the small hand-held device will be passed over the area of the body being studied to measure levels of radioactivity. The entire period of the procedure varies as well. It can range from twenty minutes to several hours; it all depends on the type of exam being conducted. If more images are to be taken this means that something went wrong during the exam or something abnormal was found.Continued on 1st example:
“During radioactive iodine (I-131) therapy, which is most often an outpatient procedure, the radioactive iodine is swallowed, either in capsule or liquid form.” (1)