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Sound reasoning is needed in development to ensure they are deeply rooted in theory and evidence (valid), consistency permeates (reliable), and equity is sought while bias is avoided and ample opportunity is provided to elarn material (fairness)
Strong assessments include attention to cognition, observation, and interpretation
Streses the importance of continued reflection for improvement
Knowing What Students Know
Information needs to be new, or "novel", to students to test for higher-order thinking.
Students should learn and be required to apply new information in assessment, not simply restate or verbalize
Numerous strategies for providing authentic asessments (valid, fair, and reliable) that encourage higher-order thinking:
* includes concept learning through identifying, naming, and evaluating new examplars and relationships as welll as other examples of problem solving, critical thinking, and other higher-order skills
An assessment is a tool designed to observe students’ behavior and produce data that can be used to draw reasonable inferences about what students know
"Knowing What Students Know" (42)
~ One size does NOT fit all ~ Different assessments for different purposes.
~ All assessments need to be valid, reliable, and fair.
Alignment ~ Needed with curriculum and instruction
Structure ~ Needs thorough planning to ensure proper usage
Estimation ~ Remember that anything measured is only that and does not define anything.