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ACIDS AND BASES PROJECT
2 WAYS TO DETERMINE AN ACID:1. If the substance is under 7 on the pH scale, then it is an acid.2. When you add water to the substance and it starts to produce hydrgen ions, then it is an acid.
CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF ACIDS: CHEMICAL: Blue litmus paper---> red, reactswith base to produce salt and water, reacts withzinc, magnesium, or aluminum and forms hydrogen.PHYSICAL: tastes sour, conductors of electricity, soluble in water
The Arrhenius model states that a base is a substance when dissolved in water, the concentration of OH- ions increases. The Bronsted-Lowry model states that a base is a hydrogen acceptor. The Lewis model states that a base is an electron pair donor.
CHEMICAL AND PROPERTIES OF BASES:PHYSICAL: tastes bitter, slippery when wet, conductorsof electricityCHEMICAL: reacts with acid to form salt and water,turns red litmus paper blue,
Indicators change colors because theymeasure the pH potential hydrogen andthe colors tell how much hydrogen is in theacid or base.
The difference between a strong base and a weak base is that a strong base dissociates entirely into metal ions and hydroxide ions, but a weak base ionizes only partially in dilute aqueous solution
When a base and an acid react they form salt and water. This reaction is called a neutralization reaction.A real-life example of a neutralization reaction is when you have a stomach ache and drink milk of magnesia. The calcium reduces the pain.
pH+pOH=14.00pH is the concentration of hydrogenions. pOH is the concentration ofhydroxide ions.
You can measure the strength or an acid and a base by looking at the pHscale. If it is under 7 then it is an acidicsolution. If it is over 7 then it is a basic solution. And it is a 7 then it it's a neutralsolution.
2 WAYS TO DETERMINE A BASE:1. if the substance is over 7, then it is a base.2. When you add water to the substance and it begins to produce hydroxide ions, then it is a base.
Chemical dyes whose colors are affected by acidic and basic solutions are called acid-base indicators. Red and blue litmus paper, red cabbage juice, and lemon juice are acid/base indicators.
2 COMMON INDICATORS: Cherries turn blue to purple ina basic solution. Red cabbage isused to indicate a wide pH range.
The Arrhenius model states that an acid is a substance that contains hydrogen and ionizes to produce hydrogen ions in aqueous solution. The Bronsted-Lowry model states that acids are hydrogen donors. For the Lewis model, an acid is an electron acceptor.
The difference between a strong acid and a weak acid is that weak acids produce fewer ions while strong acids produce the maximum number of ions. Another difference is that weak acids cannot conduct electricity as well as strong acids.
EXAMPLES OF STRONG BASES:LiOH (lithium hydroxide)NaOH (sodium hydroxide)KOH (potassium hydroxide)EXAMPLES OF WEAK BASES:C5H5N (pyridine)NH3 (ammonia)NH4OH (ammonia hydroxide)
EXAMPLES OF STRONG ACIDS:HCl (hydrochloric acid)HI (hydroidic acid)HClO4 (perchloric acid)EXAMPLES OF WEAK ACIDS:H2CO3 (carbonic acid)HF (hydrofluoric acid)HClO (hypochlorous acid)
Acid rain is formed by a chemical reaction thatstarts when compounds such as nitrogen oxideand sulfur dioxide are related into the atmosphere.They can travel very high and far into the air and react with oxygen, water, and other chemicals. The acid rain causesrespiratory diseases such as asthma and bronchitis because ofthe harmful nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxides in the atmosphere.It is also very harmful to trees. Acid rain affects streams and lakesin the eastern part of the U.S. because of their low pH levels. We canimprove the acid rain problem by using more nuclear energy and lesssulfur coal.
acid rain damage
1) EPA. "Acid Rain." EPA. Environmental Protection Agency, n.d. Web. 24 Feb. 2013.2)Sibert, Gwen. "Notes on Acids and Bases." Notes on Acids and Bases. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Feb. 2013.3) Bender, Hal. "Neutralization." Neutralization. Clackamas Community College, 2002. Web. 24 Feb. 2013.4) Helmenstine,, Anne Marie. "Home and Garden PHÂ Indicators." About.com Chemistry. About.com, n.d. Web. 24 Feb. 2013.REST OF INFORMATION WAS FOUND IN TEXTBOOK